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Journal of the Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons 2010;37(2):129-136.
Published online March 1, 2010.
The Usability of Various Flaps for Hindfoot Reconstruction.
Jung Hwan Lee, Jong Wook Lee, Jang Hyu Koh, Dong Kook Seo, Jai Koo Choi, Suk Jun Oh, Young Chul Jang
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, School of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul, Korea. jwlpsdoc@yahoo.co.kr
Anatomically, the foot is provided with insufficient blood supply and is relatively vulnerable to venous congestion compared to other parts of the body. Soft tissue defects are more difficult to manage and palliative treatments can cause hyperkeratosis or ulcer formation, which subsequently requires repeated surgeries. For weight bearing area such as the heel, not only is it important to provide wound coverage but also to restore the protective senses. In these cases, application of flaps for hind foot reconstruction is widely recognized as an effective treatment. In this study, we report the cases of soft tissue reconstruction for which various types of flaps were used to produce good results in both functional and cosmetic aspects. METHODS: Data from 37 cases of hind foot operation utilizing flaps performed between from June 2000 to June 2008 were analyzed.
Burn related factors were the most common cause of defects, accounting for 19 cases. In addition, chronic ulceration was responsible for 8 cases and so forth. Types of flaps used for the operations, listed in descending order are radial forearm free flap(18), medial plantar island flap(6), rotation flap(5), sural island flap(3), anterolateral thigh free flap(2), lattisimus dorsi muscular flap(2), and contra lateral medial plantar free flap(1). 37 cases were successful, but 8 cases required skin graft due to partial necrosis in small areas.
Hind foot reconstruction surgeries that utilize flaps are advantageous in protecting the internal structure, restoring functions, and achieving proper contour aesthetically. Generally, medial plantar skin is preferred because of the anatomical characteristics of the foot (e.g. fibrous septa, soft tissue for cushion). However alternative methods must be applied for defects larger than medial plantar skin and cases in which injuries exist in the flap donor/recipient site(scars in the vicinity of the wound, combined vascular injury). We used various types of flaps including radial forearm neurosensory free flap in order to reconstruct hind foot defects, and report good results in both functional and cosmetic aspects.
Keywords: Hindfoot reconstruction; Hindfoot soft tissue defect; Various flaps
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