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Journal of the Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons 2008;35(6):687-691.
Published online November 1, 2008.
The Correction of Inverted Nipple Using Modified Purse-string Suture.
Sang Ha Oh, Jong Seol Woo, Seung Ryul Lee, Jae Ryoung Kim
1Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea. psdrlsr@cnu.ac.kr
2Kim Jae Ryoung Plastic Clinics, Daejeon, Korea.
Abstract
PURPOSE
An inverted nipple presents both cosmetic and functional problems. It is a source of repeated irritation and inflammation, and interferes with nursing. In addition, its abnormal appearance may cause psychological distress. With consideration of its underlying pathophysiologic components and severity, a number of techniques have been introduced for correction of this anomaly. The diversity of techniques indicates the lack of a good, sustainable, and durable solution for this quite common problem. We report our method as an alternative solution for correcting of the inverted nipple. METHODS: From August 2003 to November 2007, 273 nipples in 147 patients were treated. 126 patients had bilateral inverted nipples. Patient age at the operation ranged from 21 to 63 years(mean age, 34 years). All nipples were congenital anomaly. 45 nipples were graded as grade I, 179 nipples as II, and 49 nipples as III. In the our study, we made some modification to the classic purse-string suture: (1) twice purse-string suture: (2) excision of diamond-shaped skin at the nipple neck: (3) buried suture of the breast parenchyma at the nipple base: (4) some timely release of retraction using Bovie's electrocautery dissection at inner surface of the nipple neck.
RESULTS
The operation time averaged 15 minutes. The mean follow-up period ranged from 3 to 48 months, with an average of 8.4 months. There were no complications associated with the surgery, such as infection, hematoma, permanent sensory disturbance, or total nipple necrosis except temporary sensory loss in 9 cases, partial nipple necrosis in 7 cases, and recurred inversion in 15 cases. All patients except recurred inversion were satisfied with their results.
CONCLUSION
We believe that our modified purse- string suture is a reliable, simple, safe, and effective method for correcting the inverted nipple.
Keywords: Inverted nipple; Purse-string suture
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